CHONOS is an oceanographic information system whose products and applications are the result of environmental studies based on numerical modeling. CHONOS aims to improve the management and spatial planning of the marine territory, as well as the management of environmental and health contingencies.
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CHONOS was developed by the Oceanography and Climate Group, a part of the Patagonian Coastal Systems Research Center, based in Putemún (Castro-Chiloé). The CHONOS Oceanography and Climate group is made up of professionals from different academic fields but with common motivations and a focus on the oceanography of coastal systems.
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The South-Austral operational forecast model (MOSA) can be broadly divided into an oceanographic forecasting system and an atmospheric forecasting system. Currently, these systems are based on the Coastal and Regional Ocean Community model (CROCO, Debreu et al., 2012) and Weather Research Forecast (WRF, Skamarock et al., 2005) with regards to the oceanographic and atmospheric system, respectively. MOSA-CROCO has a spatial resolution of 1.2 km and 42 vertical levels that adapt to the topography. MOSA-WRF has a resolution of 3 km. Both models currently deliver a 72-hour forecast. MOSA-CROCO uses boundary conditions from the global Mercator-Ocean product, atmospheric conditions from the MOSA-WRF product, and 35 river point sources drawn from the FLOW product. MOSA-WRF uses boundary conditions from the product of the Global Forecast System model (GFS, Kalnay et al., 1996)Know more of MOSA in WIKI MOSA
Parti-MOSA is a Lagrangian particle dispersion tool used for coastal management in environmental emergencies. The main objective of Parti-MOSA is to offer decision makers a fast and intuitive tool to be used in events that may represent a potential environmental risk, such as oil spills, salmon pathogen dispersal like C. rogercresseyi, ISAv or HAB. Parti-MOSA is based on the Opendrift code (Dagestad et al., 2018). The particles released in each web query are inert, with no mass or size and without response to environmental conditions, therefore, they are particles that can neither be destroyed nor die when interacting with different density, salinity or temperature structures. These particles can move in the vertical water column as a function of vertical currents and bathymetry. These trajectories are calculated based on the zonal, meridional and vertical currents of the MOSA-CROCO model. The user can choose a 3-day or a 10-day particle forecast, as well as the number of particles, and the period and depth of release.Know more of PARTI-MOSA in WIKI PARTI-MOSA
ATLAS is an application that allows users to explore a compendium of historical information models of the marine environment based on simulations of the MIKE3 FM hydrodynamic model (DHI, 2019). This is a model whose flexible mesh of triangular elements and vertical discretization in sigma layers that follow the bathymetric contour (and to which additional Z layers can be added) allows an adequate adjustment of the complex bathymetry and coastline of the inland seas of the South of Chile. The MIKE 3 FM model integrates information on freshwater discharge through the FLOW model and atmospheric forcing through the WRF model (Weather Research Forecast). ATLAS allows for the exploration of direct variables of the simulation (currents, temperature, salinity), and other variables derived from these (such as water age) in the form of hourly or monthly averages and different statistics to offer a comprehensive interaction of the marine physical environment.Know more of ATLAS in WIKI ATLAS
Lagrangian connectivity is a quantitative statistical measure of the communication established between 2 or more parcels of water through the transport of particles by ocean currents. Connectivity can be calculated to quantify where particles are going (source connectivity or downstream) or where they are coming from (sink connectivity or upstream). The connectivity information is organized in matrices, which are georeferenced in CLIC, so that each element of each matrix corresponds to a parcel in the sea. The currents that transport the particles are obtained from ATLAS oceanographic numerical models, simulating past conditions of the ocean with the aim of understanding the behavior of the marine systems they represent. CLIC has different available models that include different environmental conditions and types of particles. The particles are characterized in IBM models (Individual Based Models) to respond in their biological behavior (maturation, mortality, vertical migration, etc.) or abiotic behavior (degradation, sedimentation, etc.) to the environmental conditions encountered by said particles during their transport through the currents.Know more of CLIC in WIKI CLIC
FLOW is based on the VIC (Variable Infiltration Capacity) hydrological model linked to the WRF (Weather Research Forecast) atmospheric model and digital elevation models to calculate surface runoff in the hydrological basins that discharge directly into the sea of southern Chile. FLOW presents daily freshwater flows between 1980 and 2018 at the discharge points of rivers and glaciers in the coastal zone between the Los Lagos and Magallanes regions. FLOW presents this information in the format of time series and statistics as a result of the modeling together with the information of online stations of the DGA (General Directorate of Waters of Chile) in order to have an evaluation of the degree of performance of the model. FLOW allows users to explore and visualize these results in an easy and friendly way.
The meteorological monitoring network is made up of a series of meteorological stations that transmit information in real time regarding atmospheric variables such as air temperature, wind direction and intensity, precipitation and radiation (among others). The layout and spatial coverage of the stations is designed to be able to use said environmental information, not only in the characterization of the environment, but also in the calibration and validation of the atmospheric models developed by IFOP and the main atmospheric forcings of the other oceanographic models.Know more of REDMET in WIKI REDMET
The CRUCEROS database compiles information on current measurements, sea level, temperature, salinity, and water samples (nutrients and chlorophyll) from oceanographic campaigns from 2010 onwards. This information is the basis on which the marine environment and its physical-bio-chemical dynamics are characterized, in addition to serving as an evaluation tool for the performance of oceanographic models in their calibration and validation. CRUCEROS is an online catalog whose purpose is only to observe the location and type of georeferenced information available and thus easily identify what measurements are available in different fjords and channels of Patagonia.
WIKI is a library that organizes the information and complementary documentation of CHONOS through web pages, including more in-depth methodological descriptions of each tool, as well as information on the oceanography of Chilean Patagonia, our work team, publications and general dissemination of the knowledge derived from the research work carried out in CHONOS.
The Chono were a native people of southern Chile, great navigators and connoisseurs of their seas. Recovering that spirit, today CHONOS provides the latest knowledge of the southern seas at the service of society through its applications.